Fluid Analysis

KAT offers a suite of analyses to characterise crude oil and gas condensate samples and help assess the potential impact on production operations.

 

SARA [Iatroscan]

Separates the test fluid into four solubility classes: Saturate (Paraffin), Aromatic, Resin, and Asphaltenes using the Iatroscan technique [a semi-automated, modified form of thin layer chromatography].

Separation of the SAR fractions from the asphaltenes is achieved by using a series of solvents of differing polarity (non-polar for the saturates, increasing polarity for the aromatics and resin fractions). Once separated, analysis of all the different fractions is performed using flame ionisation detector (FID).

 

Asphaltene Content [Modified IP143]

Determines the mass percent of asphaltenes as defined by insolubility in n-heptane solvent. It is applicable to all solid and semi-solid petroleum asphalts containing little or no mineral matter, to gas condensates and heavy fuel oils.

 

Wax Content [UOP46 / BP237]

Determines the mass percent of material precipitated when a solution of asphaltene free crude is dissolved in dichloromethane and cooled to

-32°C [-25.6°F].

 

C36+ Hydrocarbon Composition

The hydrocarbon distribution within black oils and gas condensates can be determined using a gas chromatograph [GC] equipped with a non-polar capillary column, and a flame ionisation detector. Components up to C9 may be individually resolved and quantified but species beyond nC9 are usually reported as pseudo-components.

 

Extended n-Paraffin Composition

Resolves the complete n-paraffin distribution of a crude oil or gas condensate and/or their deposited fractions both quantitatively and qualitatively. It is accepted as the industry standard for compositional characterisation of waxes and provides a key input to simulation and correlation tools for thermodynamic, rheological, and depositional predictions.

KAT, in partnership with the University of Plymouth, are continually working to further develop and improve the methodology for analysing crude oil and gas condensate samples by High Temperature Gas Chromatography [HTGC].

Work to date has led to the development of the T-SEP® system which extends the n-paraffin analysis by approximately 20 extra carbon numbers compared to the standard methodology.

 

Heavy Metals

Arsenic and Lead by ICP and ICP-MS analysis. Mercury by AA [UOP938/IP594/ASTM D7622]. Sulphur, Nickel and Vanadium by XRF.

 

Total Acid Number [IP77/D664]

The measurement of acidity as determined by the amount of potassium hydroxide in required to neutralise one gram of test fluid. The TAN value indicates the potential of corrosion problems.

 

Density [IP365] & API Gravity

Measurement of how heavy or light a petroleum liquid is.

API gravity is an inverse measure of a petroleum liquid's density relative to that of water [specific gravity]. API gravity values of most petroleum liquids fall between 10 and 70 degrees. If API gravity is greater than 10, the fluid floats on water; if less than 10, it is heavier and sinks.

 

Kinematic Viscosity [IP71]

The dynamic viscosity of a fluid per unit density.

 

Water Analysis

Sulphate, Bromide and Nitrate by Ion Chromatography. Organic acids by Ion Exchange. Multi-element/cation analysis by ICP-OES. Chloride by potentiometric titration. pH and Resistivity.

 

The hydrocarbon distribution within black oils and gas condensates can be determined using a gas chromatograph [GC] equipped with a non-polar capillary column, and a flame ionisation detector. Components up to C9 may be individually resolved and quantified but species beyond nC9 are usually reported as pseudo-components.